近几年，碲化镉薄膜太阳电池技术在国际上的发展却非常迅速，无论是在产业上还是基础研究上都取得令人瞩目的进步。产业化方面，2015年6月大面积电池组件（7038.8cm2）效率达到18.6%，超过多晶硅组件17.7%的全面积效率。这意味着，碲化镉薄膜太阳电池已经打破了人们对薄膜太阳电池低成本、低效率的传统认识，而成为一种低成本、高效率的太阳电池。美国First Solar在2015年的产量超过2GW，0.72㎡组件产线平均效率达到了16-17%，组件售价也降到$0.40/Wp左右。更在近期公布开发第六代（G6）面积为2.16 m2 、400W大组件的计划。基础研究方面，2011年以来，CdTe太阳电池的效率世界纪录连续九次被突破，美国First Solar公司于2016年公布了实验室电池转换效率22.1%的新世界纪录，已经超过多晶硅电池的实验室效率。但开路电压一直是碲化镉薄膜太阳电池的短板，过去性能较好电池的开路电压基本上分布在800 ~ 850 mV区间。NREL和Washington State Univ.等多家单位联合攻关，于2015-2016年取得重要的突破性进展，基于体单晶CdTe的器件开路电压历史性地突破1.0 V。几乎在同期Arizona State Univ.的团队采用分子束外延制备的CdTe单晶薄膜与硅薄膜结合制备结电池，开路电压也达到1.12 V。2017年Colorado State University采用MZO窗口层替代CdS、CdSeTe增大吸收层的吸收波段、Te背接触等技术实现了19.1%的转换效率和超过28mA/cm2的短路电流密度。这些进展无疑对碲化镉太阳电池的发展起到重大的指导意义。碲化镉电池技术无疑是非常值得期待的。
James Sites, 美国科罗拉多州立大学物理学学院 教授
简介 James Sites studies the device physics of CdTe and CIGS thin-film solar cells. He received his PhD from Cornell in 1969 and has been on the Colorado State faculty since 1971. His photovoltaics lab makes precision electrical and optical measurements on solar cells fabricated at Colorado State and by several partners in the U.S. and abroad. The goals of his laboratory are to separate the various solar-cell losses, to explain the losses on a fundamental basis, to make numerical simulations when appropriate, and to suggest strategies for improved solar-cell performance. Prof. Sites has a recognized leadership role in the U.S. thin-film solar-cell community. He has published 180 papers, including co-author on CdTe solar cells in the Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering. 47 of his students have completed their M.S. degree and 30 their Ph.D.
演讲题目 Strategies to increase CdTe efficiency
内容摘要 The talk will describe advances at Colorado State and elsewhere on key issues for the CdTe absorber material, the front layers before the absorber, and the back contact. Most important is how the individual layers and their interfaces come together to determine the cell efficiency.
简介 Dr.W.S.Sampath is a professor of Mechanical Engineering at Colorado State University. He is the founding Director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Industry/University Co-Operative Research Center for Next generation Photovoltaics (PV). The members include industry leaders such as First Solar, the largest manufacturer of CdTe PV and 5N Plus the largest supplier of CdTe materials for the industry. His research has been focused on CdTe photovoltaics since 1991. His research has been applied to PV manufacturing in industry including at Abound Solar for manufacturing at the rate of 180 MWs/Yr. His research is also supported by the Dept. of Energy (DOE).
演讲题目 CdTe Photovoltaics for Sustainable ElectricityGeneration
内容摘要 Energy sustainability represents one of the grand challenges facing modern society, and CdTe thin film solar photovoltaics provide the best opportunity for rapidly expanding renewable energy. CdTe PV is currently competitive for generating electricity in many parts of the world providing electricity at 7-9 US cents/kWh from utility scale projects without subsidy and the costs are decreasing rapidly. Recently an agreement was made to sell electricity from CdTe PV from a new 100 MW field at 3.87 US cents/kWh. There are no technical barriers to substantial increase in CdTe PV production. In our center, CdTe research has been ongoing since 1991. Device efficiency of 18.3% (independently certified) on low cost soda-lime glass substrates using a low cost sublimation process with two minute cycle time in modest vacuum has been demonstrated. Efficiencies of 19.1% without anti-reflection coating have been measured on these substrates. The current research focus is to significantly increase device efficiency and increase module life from 25 years to 50 years to facilitate the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) goal of 2-3 US cents/kWh while maintaining a direct line of sight to GW scale manufacturing.
Kuo-Jui Hsiao, Reel Solar太阳能技术公司 首席科学家
简介 Dr. Hsiao joined RSI in July 2014. He is an experienced PV specialist; previously VP of R&D in Terasolar Power Inc., assistant professor in National Taiwan Normal University, principal engineer in both TSMC and TSMC Solar. Dr. Hsiao is experienced in thin-film solar panel manufacturing (CIGS and CdTe), research and development, characterization, process engineering, and reliability test. He has delivered traceable champion module and successfully transferred technology for TSMC Solar. Dr. Hsiao holds a B.S. in Physics from National Taiwan University and a Ph.D. in Physics from Colorado State University, where he researched solar-cell characterization, CdTe thin-film solar cell, and device modeling.
演讲题目 High Efficiency Electroplated CdTe Solar Module
内容摘要 Reel Solar power Inc. (RSPi) is producing CdTe solar modules with innovative patented electroplating technology. After post-deposition treatment, CdTe electroplated in RSPi behaves like CdTe prepared at high temperature and vacuum. In the past three years, RSPi improved conversion efficiency by 1% per year and now plated CdTe solar modules with high efficiency and reasonable reliability have been delivered.
熊刚,First Solar加利福利亚研究中心 主任
简介 熊刚博士现任First Solar加利福利亚研究中心主任，主持CdTe太阳能电池高端研究工作。熊刚博士2007年加入First Solar，十年内完成多项电池器件/组件技术研发及量产的项目。熊刚博士领导的团队数次打破CdTe电池转换效率的世界纪录。譬如在2011年，他的研究团队实现17.3%的器件转换效率，一举打破由NREL保持10年之久的世界纪录。熊刚博士本科和硕士毕业于中国科技大学物理系，后在美国Wake Forest大学获得物理学博士学位。在加入First Solar之前，他在美国能源部所属的西北太平洋国家实验室从事博士后研究工作。
演讲题目 Toward 25% CdTe Solar Cell Efficiency
内容摘要 In 2015, First Solar set a new CdTe solar cell efficiency record at 21.1%. Thanks to ZnTe back contact that has higher work function and better chemical affinity with Cu, FF and light soak stability of CdTe devices were significantly improved. The 31.7mA/cm2 record Jsc was accomplished by elimination of window layer and alloying with Se. Increased Voc has been mostly driven by a nearly two-decade improvement of minority carrier lifetime (from ~1 ns to 100 ns). Our collaboration on DOE fPACE2 program partners also demonstrated that CdTe as a material is as good as GaAs and 25% device efficiency should be possible.
Achieving 25% efficiency requires some breakthrough on absorber doping and/or reduction of back surface recombination. Recently, we have been able to consistently produce As-doped CdTe with greater than 1016 cm-3 hole concentration in poly-crystalline devices. We have demonstrated 906 mV Voc, and 18.2% efficiency separately, both on Cu-free devices, As-doped devices showed excellent stability. Nevertheless SRH recombination in such devices were apparently higher than that of Cu-doped devices, which limits further Voc improvement.
As far as back surface passivation, a few materials such as Cd1-xMgxTe showed promise on reduction of CdTe surface recombination velocity. Enhanced Voc was demonstrated on thin absorber devices with back surface passivation layer. However, many back surface passivation materials we investigated exhibited an unfavorable valence band offset hence to block hole transport. Furthermore, some materials may not be manufacturing friendly, for example that Cd1-xMgxTe is easy to oxidize in our study.
In summary, we have made great accomplishment in the last couple of years on CdTe solar cell efficiency improvement, and have hence developed stronger confidence on CdTe efficiency entitlement. In order to reaching 25% efficiency target, we must overcome significant process and device integration challenges specific to polycrystalline CdTe material engineering.
Stuart J.C.Irvine,斯望西大学太阳能研究中心 主任
简介 Professor Stuart Irvine is Director of the Centre for Solar Energy Research (CSER) in the College of Engineering, Swansea University and is based in the OpTIC Technology Centre in St Asaph, North Wales; along with the CSER team. He is one of the pioneers for deposition of II-VI compound semiconductors by Metal-organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) for application to thin film solar cells and advanced thin film materials to and for the opto-electronics industry. This research has led to the publication of over 200 journal and conference publications and 10 patents.
Professor Irvine received his B.Sc degree in Physics from Loughborough University, Ph.D in Physical Metallurgy and Science of Materials, and D.Sc in Physics, both from the University of Birmingham. Stuart chairs the Institute of Materials Mineral and Mining (IOM3) Energy Materials Group that has a broad view over the application of materials in energy generation and the challenges faced with both renewable energy generation and large power generation.
演讲题目 Acceptor doping of CdTe solar cells:benefits and limitations
内容摘要 Acceptor doping of CdTe solar cells has traditionally been realized by diffusion of Cu from the back contact. Controlling the exact dose of Cu on the back contact is critical to avoid defect formation at the junction. The best doping concentrations for Cu are around 1E15 but to achieve a high Voc it is necessary to go to higher concentrations in the 1E16 – 1E17 range. Using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) we have introduced As as an acceptor dopant in the 1E16 – 1E17 range. This talk will describe recent results on the As doping process, high As doping back contacts and SCAPS modeling of the doped devices. The benefits and some disadvantages of high acceptor concentrations will be discussed along with prospects for Voc to exceed 1 Volt in polycrystalline PV cells.
Darius Kuciauskas,美国国家能源部可再生能源实验室 高级研究员
简介 Dr. Kuciauskas is a senior scientist at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Golden, Colorado, USA) where he works on electro-optical characterization of photovoltaic materials and devices. He actively collaborates within NREL, with Universities and the PV industry, and has authored more than 100 publications in applied physics, materials science, and photovoltaics.
演讲题目 Correlative Optical Microscopy and Spectroscopy of Charge Carrier Lifetimes, Mobilities, and Space Charge Fields in CdTe Solar Cells
内容摘要 Recombination limits solar cell efficiency, and understanding /reducing recombination is the focus of many research efforts. Our approach to identifying defect locations is based on carrier generation with a focused laser beam in well-defined regions in the solar cell. Two-photon excitation (2PE) enables analysis beyond the surface region, and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) acquisition enables studies of interfaces, space charge region, and the absorber bulk. Optical microscopy with excitation beam focused to a radius less than the carrier diffusion length allows analysis of carrier transport characteristics. In addition, correlative measurements of Second Harmonics Generation (SHG) are a novel optical probe for space charge fields in CdTe solar cells. We will present results for single crystal, epitaxial, and polycrystalline CdTe materials and devices. We will also compare electro-optical properties of various types of chalcogenide solar cells.
简介 2005-now, Professor of the National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China Hefei. Group leader of the semiconductor thin film laboratory. Working on thin film CdS/CdTe growth and solar cell fabrication.
2003-2005, Post-doctoral research associate in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Working on GaN-related film growth by MOCVD and device fabrications.
1999-2002, Research scientist in the Joint Research Center for Atom Technology in Tsukuba, Japan. Grew GaN on Si substrates using SiC as a buffer layer using an MBE system.
1994-1997, Got the Ph.D from the Goettingen University, Germany.
演讲题目 Highly efficient new structure CdTe thin film solar cell
内容摘要 In this report will present our recent progress on the fabrication of new structure CdTe thin film solar cells. The cell device performance, including the device stability, new buffer layer at the back contact and device performance under harsh environments will be reported.
简介 北京计算科学研究中心材料与能源研究部主任、教授。1981年6月毕业于复旦大学物理系，获学士学位。同年通过中美物理联合招生（CUSPEA）去美国读博。 1985年8月毕业于美国威廉玛丽学院（College of William and Mary），获理学博士学位。之后在美国可再生能源国家实验室(NREL)任博士后、科学家、资深科学家、首席科学家、理论研究室主任，国家实验室Fellow。长期负责美国国家光伏中心材料理论方面的工作。一直从事理论凝聚态物理和材料计算领域的科学研究。多年来，在固体理论和材料计算方面做出了杰出的贡献，尤其在研究半导体化合物、透明氧化物、合金、超晶格、纳米材料，和能源材料等体系的结构、能带、电学，光学，磁学，以及掺杂等性质方面取得了大量原创性且具有国际影响力的成果，并在研究这些体系的过程中发展了多种计算方法。在国际知名期刊上已发表了SCI论文450余篇，其中包括68篇发表在物理学顶级期刊《物理评论快报》（Physical Review Letters）上，60余篇在《应用物理快报》（Applied Physics Letters）上.论文引用40000多次，H因子=99。目前是多家国际科学杂志的编委。在国际大会上做了130余次邀请报告。2007-2010年被复旦大学聘为长江学者讲座教授。1999年被选为美国物理学会会士（APS Fellow），2014年被选为美国材料学会会士（MRS Fellow）。2015年入选国家“千人计划”。2016年担任国家科技部重大专项首席专家，并被选为中国材料学会计算材料分会副主任委员。
演讲题目 First-principles Study of Defect Control in Thin-film Photovoltaic Materials
内容摘要 First-principles study of photovoltaic (PV) materials plays an important role in developing PV technologies because it can provide useful physical insights, fresh perspective and new design principles for developing innovative PV materials with high solar cell efficiency and reduced cost. A good solar cell absorber material should have appropriate band gap (1.0 ~ 1.5 eV) with high solar light absorption and correct band location/alignment relative to the extraction layers to form a good interface with contacting layer. More importantly, a good solar cell material also should have good defect properties so that it can be doped well such that charge carriers can be created easily to generate the required electric field and has less defect-induced recombination centers such that it has high carrier life time and minority carrier mobility so photo-generated charge can be easily collected. Currently, most issues related to PV absorbers can be traced back to certain defect related issues. In this talk, using thin-film solar cell absorber materials CdTe, CIGS, and CZTS as examples, I will discuss how theoretical first-principles studies can be used to better understand the defect properties and improve the solar cell performance.
简介 2012-by far, Association professor，school of advanced materials, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University,
2009-2011, Associate researcher,Shanghai Institute of Ceramics,Chinese Academy of Sciences.
2006-2009, Postdoctor, Tohoku University, Japan.
2003-2006, Ph. Doctor of science student, Microelectronics and Solid Electronics, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
演讲题目 The material and structure for the back contact of Silicon and CdTe solar cell
内容摘要 Here we told about the back contact of CdTe solar cell and Si-based solar cell. We built up the structure of Al2O3 films/electrode in back contact of solar cell, made some experiments and discussion, set up physical model.
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